Autosoft Journal

Online Manuscript Access

Middleware for Internet of Things: Survey and Challenges



The Internet of things (IoT) applications span many potential fields. Furthermore, smart homes, smart cities, smart vehicular networks, and healthcare are very attractive and intelligent applications. In most of these applications, the system consists of smart objects that are equipped by sensors and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and may rely on other technological computing and paradigm solutions such as M2 M (machine to machine) computing, Wifi, Wimax, LTE, cloud computing, etc. Thus, the IoT vision foresees that we can shift from traditional sensor networks to pervasive systems, which deliver intelligent automation by running services on objects. Actually, a significant attention has been given to designing a middleware that supports many features; heterogeneity, mobility, scalability, multiplicity, and security. This papers reviews the-state-of-the-art techniques for IoT middleware systems and reveals an interesting classification for these systems into service and agent-oriented systems. Therefore two visions have emerged to provide the IoT middleware systems: Via designing the middleware for IoT system as an eco-system of services or as an eco-system of agents. The most common feature of the two approaches is the ability to overcome heterogeneity issues. However, the agent approach provides context awareness and intelligent elements. The review presented in this paper includes a detailed comparison between the IoT middleware approaches. The paper also explores challenges that form directions for future research on IoT middleware systems. Some of the challenges arise, because some crucial features are not provided (or at most partially provided) by the existing middleware systems, while others have not been yet tackled by current research in IoT.



Total Pages: 10
Pages: 309-318


Manuscript ViewPdf Subscription required to access this document

Obtain access this manuscript in one of the following ways

Already subscribed?

Need information on obtaining a subscription? Personal and institutional subscriptions are available.

Already an author? Have access via email address?


Volume: 24
Issue: 2
Year: 2018


Alarcón, Rosa, and Erik Wilde. "RESTler." Proceedings of the 19th international conference on World wide web - WWW ”10 (2010): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Atzori, Luigi, Antonio Iera, and Giacomo Morabito. "The Internet of Things: A Survey." Computer Networks 54.15 (2010): 2787-2805. Crossref. Web.

Azzara, Andrea et al. "Middleware Solutions in WSN: The IoT Oriented Approach in the ICSI Project." 2013 21st International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks - (SoftCOM 2013) (2013): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Soma Bandyopadhyay et al. "Role Of Middleware For Internet Of Things: A Study." International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey 2.3 (2011): 94-105. Crossref. Web.

Bazzani, Marco et al. "Enabling the IoT Paradigm in E-Health Solutions through the VIRTUS Middleware." 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (2012): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Bellifemine, F., Poggi, A., & Rimassa, G. (2001). Developing multi-agent systems with a FIPA-compliant agent framework. Software Practice and Experience, John Wiley and Sons, Ldt.,31, 103–128,

Botta, Alessio et al. "On the Integration of Cloud Computing and Internet of Things." 2014 International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (2014): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Chaqfeh, M., & Mohamed, N. (2012). Challenges in middleware solutions for the internet of things. In proceedings of The 2012 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS 2012). Denver, Colorado, USA,

De Souza, Luciana Moreira Sá et al. "SOCRADES: A Web Service Based Shop Floor Integration Infrastructure." Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2008): 50-67. Crossref. Web.

Dillon, T., Wu, C., & Chang, E. (2010). Cloud computing: Issues and challenges. In the proceedings of the 24th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (pp. 27-33). DOI: 10.1109/AINA.2010.187

Domingues, Jeisa P. O., Antonio V. L. Damaso, and Nelson S. Rosa. "WISeMid: Middleware for Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet." Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2010): 70-83. Crossref. Web.

Eisenhauer, Markus, Peter Rosengren, and Pablo Antolin. "A Development Platform for Integrating Wireless Devices and Sensors into Ambient Intelligence Systems." 2009 6th IEEE Annual Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops (2009): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Endrei, M., Ang, J., Arsanjani, A., Chua, S., Comte, P., Krogkahl, P., Newling, T. (2004). Patterns: Service-oriented architecture and web services. New York, NY: International Technical Support Organization, IBM red books. ISBN 073845317x.

FIPA Architecture Board. (2000). FIPA agent management support for mobility specification. Geneva, Switzerland: Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents.

Fortino, Giancarlo et al. "An Agent-Based Middleware for Cooperating Smart Objects." Highlights on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (2013): 387-398. Crossref. Web.

Fortino, G., & Russo, W. (2013). Towards a Cloud-assisted and Agent-oriented Architecture for the Internet of Things. In proceedings of the 14th workshop from Objects to Agents (WOA 2013) (pp. 60–65). Turin.

Gama, Kiev, Lionel Touseau, and Didier Donsez. "Combining Heterogeneous Service Technologies for Building an Internet of Things Middleware." Computer Communications 35.4 (2012): 405-417. Crossref. Web.

Gil, David et al. "Internet of Things: A Review of Surveys Based on Context Aware Intelligent Services." Sensors 16.7 (2016): 1069. Crossref. Web.

Hachem, S., Pathak, A., & Issarny, V. (2014). Service-Oriented Middleware for the Mobile Internet of Things: A Scalable Solution. IEEE GLOBECOM: Global Communications Conference (pp. 1-6). Austin, United States.

Wu He, Gongjun Yan, and Li Da Xu. "Developing Vehicular Data Cloud Services in the IoT Environment." IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 10.2 (2014): 1587-1595. Crossref. Web.

Hermann, Christian, and Waltenegus Dargie. "Senceive: A Middleware for a Wireless Sensor Network." 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (aina 2008) (2008): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Hong, Yelin. "A Resource-Oriented Middleware Framework for Heterogeneous Internet of Things." 2012 International Conference on Cloud and Service Computing (2012): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). (2004). Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core. RFC 6120,

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). (2012). RPL: IPv6 routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. RCF 6550,

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). (2014). Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). RFC 7252.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. (2006). IEEE Std 802.15.4-2006, Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs).

Internet of caring things. (2014). Trend report.

Issarny, Valérie et al. "Service-Oriented Middleware for the Future Internet: State of the Art and Research Directions." Journal of Internet Services and Applications 2.1 (2011): 23-45. Crossref. Web.

Jayaraman, PP., Perera, C., Georgakopoulos, C., & Zaslavsky, A. (2014). MOSDEN: A scalable mobile collaborative platform for opportunistic sensing applications. Transactions on Collaborative Computing,14 1), 1–16,

Jia, Xiaolin et al. "RFID Technology and Its Applications in Internet of Things (IoT)." 2012 2nd International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet) (2012): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Katasonov, A., Kaykova, O., & Khriyenko, O. (2008). Smart semantic middleware for the internet of things. In proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (pp. 169-178). Funchal, Madeira, Portugal.

Katasonov, Artem, and Vagan Terziyan. "Semantic Agent Programming Language (S-APL): A Middleware Platform for the Semantic Web." 2008 IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing (2008): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Kopetz, Hermann. "Real-Time Systems." Real-Time Systems Series (2011): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Fei Li et al. "Efficient and Scalable IoT Service Delivery on Cloud." 2013 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Cloud Computing (2013): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Madden, S., Hellerstein, J., & Hong, W. (2003). Tinydb: In-network query processing in tinyos. Technical report.

Milagaia, R. (2008). DPWS middleware to support agent-based manufacturing control and simulation. Robotics and integrated manufacturing (Master thesis). Monte de Caparica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.

Mulligan, Geoff. "The 6LoWPAN Architecture." Proceedings of the 4th workshop on Embedded networked sensors - EmNets ”07 (2007): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Nagy, M., Katasonov, A., Khriyenko O., Nikitin, S., Szydlowski, M., & Terziyan, V. (2009). Chapter 14 in automation & control - theory and practice (247–273), challenges of middleware for the internet of things, ISBN 978-953-307-039-1, DOI: 10.5772/7869

OSGi Alliance. (2007). About the OSGi service platform, technical whitepaper.

Perera, Charith et al. "Context Aware Computing for The Internet of Things: A Survey." IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials 16.1 (2014): 414-454. Crossref. Web.

Reetz, ES., Kümper, D., Lehmann, A., & Tönjes, R. (2012). Test driven life cycle management for internet of things based services: A semantic approach. In proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advances in System Testing and Validation Lifecycle(pp. 21–27). Lisbon.

Song, Zhexuan, Alvaro A. Cardenas, and Ryusuke Masuoka. "Semantic Middleware for the Internet of Things." 2010 Internet of Things (IOT) (2010): n. pag. Crossref. Web.

Souto, Eduardo et al. "Mires: a Publish/subscribe Middleware for Sensor Networks." Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 10.1 (2005): 37-44. Crossref. Web.

Suciu, G., Vulpe, A., Todoran, G., Cropotova, J., & Suciu, V. (2013). Cloud computing and internet of things for smart city deployments. In proceedings of the 7th International Conference Challenges of the Knowledge Society (CKS 2013) (pp. 1409–1416).

Teixeira, T., Hachem, S., Issarny, V., & Georgantas, N. (2011). Service oriented middleware for the internet of things: A perspective. ServiceWave ”11, LNCS,6994, 220–229.

The Internet of Things: making the most of the Second Digital Revolution. (2014). UK government chief scientific adviser, (Ref: GS/14/1230).

Vermesan, O., & Friess, P. (2013). Internet of things -converging technologies for smart environments and integrated ecosystems. Aalborg, Denmark: River Publisher. ISBN: 978-87-92982-73-5.

W3C. (1997). Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL).

W3C. (2014). Efficient XML interchange (EXI) format.

Yang, Y., Wang, Z., Liu, Q., & Wang, L. (2012). Building a pervasive SOA based IOT communication middleware using runtime compilation and reflection. Journal of Computational Information Systems,8, 643–654.

Zarghami, S. (2013). Middleware for internet of things (Master Thesis). University of Twenty.

Zhang, W., & Hansen, KM. (2008). An OWL/SWRL based diagnosis approach in a pervasive middleware. In proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE”2008) (pp. 893-898)

Ming, Zhou, Fan Hong, and Ma Yan. "Semantic Annotation Method of IOT Middleware." 2013 Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP) (2013): n. pag. Crossref. Web.


ISSN PRINT: 1079-8587
ISSN ONLINE: 2326-005X
DOI PREFIX: 10.31209
10.1080/10798587 with T&F
IMPACT FACTOR: 0.652 (2017/2018)
Journal: 1995-Present


TSI Press
18015 Bullis Hill
San Antonio, TX 78258 USA
PH: 210 479 1022
FAX: 210 479 1048